Voices: A World Forum for Music Therapy https://voices.no/index.php/voices <p>An Open Access peer reviewed journal that invites interdisciplinary dialogue and discussion about music, health, and social change. The journal nurtures a critical edge that refines the focus on inclusiveness, socio-cultural awareness, and social justice.&nbsp;</p> Grieg Academy Music Therapy Research Centre (NORCE and University of Bergen) en-US Voices: A World Forum for Music Therapy 1504-1611 <p>As author, you retain copyright to your work. The author/s grant the journal the right of first publication and a non-exclusive, royalty-free, transferable, sub-licensable, worldwide license to use, copy, adapt, modify, reproduce, publish, display and distribute the accepted material in all, now known or in the future developed, forms and&nbsp; media.</p> <p>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</p> Music Therapy and Child Welfare https://voices.no/index.php/voices/article/view/2587 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Rebecca Fairchild Susan Hadley ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-17 2018-10-17 18 4 10.15845/voices.v18i4.2587 Music Therapy https://voices.no/index.php/voices/article/view/2593 <p>Despite a growing interest in music therapy within child welfare practice, music therapy practices within these contexts are still under-researched in Norway. The present study takes a collaborative community music therapy practice as its point of departure. We interviewed nine social workers aged 30–55 from four different child welfare institutions about their ideas on the advantages and disadvantages of music therapy as an approach to promote mental health and development. Informants’ ideas about the benefits of music therapy circled around four main themes: a) safety and well-being, b) relationships and mastery, c) dealing with complex emotions, and d) continuity and stability, across situations. Findings show that the social workers’ reflections around music therapy correspond with child welfare issues such as trauma-informed care and participation.</p> Viggo Kruger Dag Ø. Nordanger Brynjulf Stige ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-17 2018-10-17 18 4 Working With and Within Chaos https://voices.no/index.php/voices/article/view/2588 <p>The Support Programme for Abuse Reactive Children, was initiated by the Teddy Bear Clinic (an NPO established to protect abused children) in South Africa in response to the increase of child-on-child offenders in this country.&nbsp; This short-term programme aims to offer holistic rehabilitation to first time young sex offenders and incorporates conventional diversion approaches alongside creative programmes, including group music therapy. Based on a review of my session notes, this paper considers challenges and positive developments I experienced over time as the programme’s music therapist from 2006 to 2016. Although I often experienced this work as chaotic, findings suggest that through co-creating a context-specific music therapy programme alongside group members, clinic staff and the broader community, music therapy has offered an increasingly relevant and valuable complement to the diversion programme. Continuing challenges within this work are also highlighted.</p> Helen Brenda Oosthuizen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-17 2018-10-17 18 4 10.15845/voices.v18i4.2588 Humanistic Music Therapy in the Child Welfare https://voices.no/index.php/voices/article/view/2590 <p><span lang="EN-GB">Music therapy has for a long time been associated with humanistic values, both among music therapists but more and more also among people outside the field. Do we all have a common understanding of what humanistic music therapy is? The point of departure in this paper is the development of a new Norwegian residential care unit for adolescents in child welfare services. Those responsible for this unit have included a music therapist</span><span lang="EN-GB">, because they want to base the enterprise and its activities upon the values they associate with music therapy. </span><span lang="EN-GB">This paper asks: What is </span><span lang="EN-GB">“humanistic music t</span><span lang="EN-GB">herapy</span><span lang="EN-GB">” and </span><span lang="EN-GB">how might its perspectives correlate with the visions and ideas of the leaders of </span><span lang="EN-GB">a child welfare institution? </span><span lang="EN-GB">A literature review </span><span lang="EN-GB">will assess the critical understanding of the concept of </span><em><span lang="EN-GB">humanistic music therapy</span></em><span lang="EN-GB">, in order to understand its unbiased and foundational values. Semi-structured interviews with the unit’s initiators will describe their visions and hopes for the development of the care unit with regard to humanistic music ther</span><span lang="EN-GB">apy. By correlating the findings from the literature review and the interviews, the paper describes aspects that might contribute to a common ground of understanding for the music therapist and the workers in the unit, which in turn might contribute to personal growth and health promotion among the adolescents and their community.</span></p> Ingeborg Nebelung Karette Stensæth ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-17 2018-10-17 18 4 10.15845/voices.v18i4.2590 A Reflexive Music Therapy Clinical In-trospection in Working with Foster Care Youth https://voices.no/index.php/voices/article/view/2602 <p class="BodyB"><span class="NoneAA"><span lang="EN-US">It is a challenge to write about the experiences of individuals in music therapy, while also honoring their experiences as co-participants of the process.&nbsp; There is also a challenge and struggle to research and write about child welfare populations as the therapist is many times the </span></span><span class="NoneA"><span lang="DE">“</span></span><span class="NoneAA"><span lang="EN-US">voice</span></span><span class="NoneA"><span lang="DE">” </span></span><span class="NoneAA"><span lang="EN-US">of the youth.&nbsp; As there is an imbalance in therapy at times, there is an imbalance in the youth</span></span><span class="NoneA"><span lang="DE">’</span></span><span class="NoneAA"><span lang="EN-US">s experiences, not only in music therapy but in their everyday lives.&nbsp; This article is a clinical introspection to the research, theory, and practice in working with youth who have experienced foster care and/or adoption.&nbsp; Although not specifically a research study, elements to this introspection will include foundations of both heuristic inquiry and reflexive phenomenology.</span></span></p> <p class="BodyB"><span class="NoneAA"><span lang="EN-US">This special issue on child welfare promotes the idea of understanding the resources that youth need, providing a space for music therapists and youth to have a voice, and collaboration between those who have involvement in the child welfare system.&nbsp; It would then seem essential to promote the critical thought of music therapy students who have encountered the child welfare system as it relates to foster care and adoption.&nbsp; As part of this heuristic approach the four authors will provide their perspectives on their experience and the literature through the following questions: How are the youth perceived in the literature?&nbsp; How do the music experiences relate to their own experiences</span></span><span class="NoneA"><span lang="RU">?</span></span><span class="NoneAA"><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;What are the roles of the music therapist and the youth</span></span><span class="NoneA"><span lang="RU">?</span></span><span class="NoneAA"><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;Are the youth reflexively and appropriately discussed within the literature? What seems to be the nature of the music therapy relationship? How would music therapy have related to your life, or not?&nbsp; Through reflexivity, implications for the field of music therapy are drawn to further promote critical reflection and integrative collaboration.&nbsp; </span></span></p> Michael L. Zanders Melanie Midach Lindy Waldemeier Brittney Barros ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-21 2018-10-21 18 4 Musical Assessment of Child Perceptions in Changing Family Situations https://voices.no/index.php/voices/article/view/2603 <p>The following article describes a systems-oriented, music-indigenous process for assessing individual children’s perceptions of their family systems. It was developed for use in individual and family music therapy contexts, with children who have experienced trauma related to changing family situations (including foster children, recently adopted children, children recently reunified with biological parents, and children who have temporarily or permanently lost contact with a significant family member). It is designed for use with children age five and older.</p> <p>In the assessment, the child uses instruments to create a musical and visual family portrait. The child chooses an instrument to represent themself, plays a short improvisation representing themself, and places the instrument somewhere in the space before them. The child then identifies a family member and repeats the process for that family member: choosing an instrument, playing an improvisation, and placing the instrument somewhere in relation to the first. This process repeats until the child has represented all the family members they wish to include. The therapist can derive salient information about the child’s perceptions of their family system through the family members chosen, instruments chosen, musical elements of the improvisation, and spatial relationships in the visual portrait.</p> Victoria Fansler ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-21 2018-10-21 18 4 Child Advocacy Centers in the United States and Music Therapy https://voices.no/index.php/voices/article/view/2589 <p>In the United States, children who suffer trauma or abuse receive services through Children’s Advocacy Centers (CACs). Over 800 CACs provided treatment and services to nearly 325,000 children in 2016 (National Children’s Alliance, 2016b). &nbsp;CACs coordinate the work of multidisciplinary teams (MDT) including law enforcement, mental health, medical, and social service personnel to help children and families heal. CACs are autonomous groups made up of affiliations with many local agencies. This article provides a description of the National Children’s Alliance (NCA) standards for implementing treatment, including the state of music therapy implementation in CACs. The literature has shown that music therapy can be helpful to address needs of children and families who have experienced trauma, suggesting that this may offer a helpful treatment modality in CACs. However, music therapy is rarely available in CACs. This may be, in part, a result of the lack of randomized controlled trials, a key determining factor for inclusion in the annotated bibliography that accompanies the NCA <em>Standards </em>(National Children’s Alliance, 2013)<em>. </em>Music therapy practice has addressed the clinical needs of children and teens who have been abused. This work is often presented in clinical reflections, not randomized controlled trials. Music therapy is currently not included in the treatment modalities utilized by CACs because of a perceived lack of evidence base. This article attempts to synthesize the information available to provide CACs with the current state of research in music therapy with children who have been abused. This article also provides music therapists with a depth of information about the structure and function of CACs, including a synthesis of the NCA <em>Standards of Practice</em>. The article presents a description for the implementation of music therapy services in a CAC in New Jersey and includes recommendations for music therapists who wish to seek out opportunities for clinical practice at CACs</p> Carol Ann Blank ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-17 2018-10-17 18 4 10.15845/voices.v18i4.2589 Strengthening Bonds between Children, Young People, and their Families after Family Violence https://voices.no/index.php/voices/article/view/2600 <p>The experience of family violence greatly impacts family dynamics and often results in children and young people becoming intertwined in a complex cycle of love, hope, and fear within their family system. Research in this context has emphasised how having a close relationship to an attuned adult or caregiver is a key protective factor for children and young people experiencing family violence, therefore engagement of family and supportive systems is an important part of the work. This article will explore our collaborative approach to working creatively with children, young people, and their non-violent family members as a way of bringing families back together after their relationships have been disrupted due to family violence. We will draw upon a case example from our work to describe how we use music to give voice to children and young people’s experiences. This approach aims to support children to tell their story, build upon their existing resources, and strengthen connections with the supportive people in their lives. In doing so, we will demonstrate how music can be used to advocate for children and young people’s voices to be heard within the context of their family’s experience.</p> Rebecca Fairchild Janine Sheridan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-21 2018-10-21 18 4 10.15845/voices.v18i4.2600 Rap in Music Therapy with Appalachian Youth with Adverse Childhood Experiences https://voices.no/index.php/voices/article/view/2591 <p>Children and adolescents in Appalachia are often exposed to Adverse Childhood Experiences and may have higher levels of depression, anxiety, and aggression than youth in other areas of the United States. The unique challenges of working with youth in Appalachia and the unexpected prevalence of rap as a preferred genre are summarized in this article. Rap is a frequently requested genre with youth in Appalachian Ohio and the youth in the area frequently identify with common themes in rap such as social criticism, social empowerment, humanistic values, and negative behavior criticism. Despite success with these methods within music therapy sessions, this Caucasian music therapist has experienced internal conflict due to the potential for cultural appropriation by using rap music in music therapy with clients who are not indigenous to Hip Hop Kulture. Discussion of the implications of therapeutic application, this therapist’s self-reflections and supervision process, potential for appropriation, and personal outcomes are included.</p> Jessica S. Fletcher ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-17 2018-10-17 18 4 10.15845/voices.v18i4.2591 Co-creating Spaces for Resilience to Flourish https://voices.no/index.php/voices/article/view/2592 <p>MusicWorks is a non-profit organisation based in Cape Town, South Africa, and offers psycho-social support through music to young people growing up in marginalised communities. In South Africa three hundred years of colonialism paved the way for Apartheid which left a legacy of waste, nepotism, corruption and the oppression of the majority of our country’s citizens. Its impact is still visible today and the consequences of past and current political, social and economic challenges has led to perpetuated patterns of poverty, gangsterism<a href="applewebdata://AF7E7C24-100A-4678-A3BB-190D5E403586#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1">[1]</a>, unemployment, and family violence that are endemic to communities such as Lavender Hill where this MusicWorks project is situated. Encouraging and strengthening the resilience of young people within this community can empower them to not only break this cycle but also be part of the solution as they become contributing members of their community and society at large. Ebersöhn’s (2012) generative theory of relationship resourced resilience proposes that when individuals use relationships as a way to access, link, and mobilise resources, an enabling ecology is shaped that can foster positive adjustment in a largely at-risk environment. Drawing on this social-ecological understanding of resilience, this paper outlines the MusicWorks project in Lavender Hill and discusses case vignettes of music work with young people and the broader school community. The aim of the project is to co-create musical spaces where young people and those around them can access resourced relationships.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>For the purpose of this paper the use of the term “gangsterism” is located firmly within the South African context, were terminology around “gangs” and “gangsterism” refers to a specific grouping of people who are involved in highly structured gangs whose criminal activity revolve mainly around illicit drug trade, with links to local and international organized crime networks ( Chetty, 2015; Goga, 2014; Shaw and Skywalker, 2016; Goga, 2014; Wegner et al., 2018). Several authors have linked the proliferation of gangs, specifically in Cape Town, to the forced removals of people during 1960 to 1980 as part of the Apartheid government’s Group Areas Act ( Chetty, 2015; Goga, 2014; Kinnes, 2017; Steinberg, 2004).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sunelle Fouche Mari Stevens ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-17 2018-10-17 18 4 10.15845/voices.v18i4.2592 Music Therapy in a Parent-Child Reunification Program https://voices.no/index.php/voices/article/view/2601 <p>Families separated due to abuse and neglect may experience compounded stress, and neglect in childhood may have negative effects on children’s resilience and development (Jacobsen, 2017; Pasiali, 2012).&nbsp; Music therapy can address the needs of these families seeking reunification, however the process for implementing treatment requires the collaboration of social service agencies, funders, and service providers.&nbsp; This article describes two different implementations of a music therapy group within a reunification program, the clinical and contextual challenges to implementation, and the benefits to the families. (<span class="TextRun SCXW44020673" lang="DE-DE" xml:lang="DE-DE"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW44020673">Übersetzung: Josephine Geipel</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW44020673" data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:3,&quot;335551620&quot;:3,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}">&nbsp;)</span></p> Angela Guerriero Carol Ann Blank ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-21 2018-10-21 18 4 10.15845/voices.v18i4.2601 Musical Ripples and Reflections https://voices.no/index.php/voices/article/view/2604 <p>Music therapy is a valuable tool for working with vulnerable children who have experienced trauma and neglect, working intimately to draw out their playfulness and resilience, and create an experience of a safe and trusting relationship. In South Africa, with its overburdened social welfare systems and under-resourced communities who remain affected by poverty and unemployment, there is limited access to medical and psychological services. The South African foster care system aims to provide safety and security for vulnerable and at-risk children and youth, but it is often overwhelmed with the extent of the needs. This anecdotal story features professional and personal reflections and vignettes on the music therapy journey with a very withdrawn and isolated young boy at a place of safety in Cape Town. I, as music therapist, and his favourite red drum, accompanied Charlie through four months of weekly individual sessions, unlocking his Music Child (Nordoff-Robbins 1977). Sessions shifted from isolated to interactive; from silent to communicative; from tentative to confident. Our music therapy journey continued, moving beyond the safe music therapy room to the unknown space of a new foster family through a home visit - an unusual occurrence in the context of community work in South Africa due to the limited psychological services available and the vast number of children in the social services systems. Collaborating with the social workers and the foster mother, I was able to visit Charlie at his new foster family’s house. The known and safe music therapy space expanded to include his foster mother and new foster siblings with whom he could share his newfound independence and confidence. The article describes music therapy’s role in ‘introducing’ Charlie to his new foster family and how it created musical connections, shared enjoyment and a sense of togetherness between them. I, as his music therapist, followed where he, the music and the context led, as reflected in the notion of community music therapy described by Ansdell (2002b). Although the focus is on the story of Charlie’s music therapy journey, it highlights the benefit of the music therapy’s role in all aspects of foster care and the need for collaboration with social welfare systems in under-resourced communities in South Africa.</p> Karyn Stuart ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-21 2018-10-21 18 4 10.15845/voices.v18i4.2604 Reflections on Practice https://voices.no/index.php/voices/article/view/2599 <p>This article presents and discusses three examples of relational processes in music therapy collaborations with adolescents in care of child welfare services. Theory on relational work in psychology, child welfare, and music therapy will be presented in order to describe the theoretical foundation of our approach. We reflect on different aspects of the therapeutic relationship, such as the distribution of roles and responsibilities between the therapist and adolescent, the need for patience, and the value of the musical cooperation in the relationship. Bordin’s theory on the therapeutic alliance functions as a framework for the discussion. We conclude that music activities can be a beneficial approach for giving adolescent in child welfare positive relational experiences with adult caregivers.</p> Christine Wilhelmsen Gisle Fuhr ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-21 2018-10-21 18 4 10.15845/voices.v18i4.2599