[Invited Submission - Special Issue]

Medical Ethnomusicology: Wherein Lies Its Potential?

By Amanda Elaine Daly Berman


The connection between music and healing has been both present and perceived for centuries, as evidenced in such famous comments as Congreve’s remark that “Music hath charms to soothe a savage breast, to soften rocks, or bend a knotted oak” (The Mourning Bride, 1697). While music therapy, medicine, and medical anthropology all examine the interplay of music and healing, medical ethnomusicology, an academic field that studies this symbiotic relationship from a cultural standpoint, has only recently been developed. Further, while music’s power to heal plays an increasing role in Western medicine/biomedicine, the term medical ethnomusicology seems to mostly be reserved for non-Western studies, with Michael Bakan’s (2009) work on autism being a notable exception. In this paper, medical ethnomusicology’s relevance within the greater field of ethnomusicology is considered, with the intent of showing how medical ethnomusicology can and should be applied to Western concepts and practices of music and healing.

Keywords: medical ethnomusicology, ethnomusicology, anthropology, collaboration, music therapy, Boston

Introduction: Definitions, Difficulties, Disjunctures, and Developments

While the connection between music and medicine has long been recognized[1], the field of medical ethnomusicology only truly began to take shape under its present title in the 1990s. In 2008, The Oxford Handbook of Medical Ethnomusicology, “the first edited volume expressive of medical ethnomusicology and its potential” (3) was published. In the introduction, editors Koen, Barz, Lloyd, and Brummel-Smith (2008) cite Benjamin Koen’s (2008) definition of medical ethnomusicology as

a new field of integrative research and applied practice that explores holistically the roles of music and sound phenomena and related praxes in and cultural and clinical context of health and healing. Broadly, these roles and praxes are viewed as being intimately related to and intertwined with the biological, psychological, social, emotional, and spiritual domains of life, all of which frame our experiences, beliefs, and understandings of health and healing, illness and disease, and life and death (3-4).

They continue that “[the] volume seeks to illuminate the cultural dynamics that underline any experience of music, health, and healing and to further encourage a new level of borderless discourse and collaboration among those interested in the subject” (4). Rebecca Dirksen (2012) notes that “medical ethnomusicology explores world cultures and ‘musicmedicine’ healing traditions as a means to address disease care and prevention.” Marina Roseman (2008) provides a much simpler definition of the field, calling it “the study of music, medicine, and culture” (19). Both these definitions reflect the interdisciplinary approach increasingly seen in both medicine and academia.

Literature within the Field of Ethnomusicology on Music and Healing

Many, including Alan Merriam (cited in Turino 2008) have noted “one of the most widely accepted ideas in ethnomusicology, that music is best understood in relation to its systemic components of sound, behavior, and concept” (2008, 36); Roseman’s 1991 ethnography Healing Sounds from the Malaysian Rainforest: Temiar Music and Medicine, credited by Koen, Barz, and Brummel-Smith and others as a key text, reflects this by locating “the multifaceted nature of music’s transformative power across the spiritual, emotional, and corporeal domains” (2008, 9). In addition to Roseman (1991), Koen’s Beyond the Roof of the World: Music, Prayer, and Healing in the Pamir Mountains (2008), Gregory Melchor-Barz’s Singing for Life: Music and HIV/AIDS in Uganda (2006), Ted Gioia’s Healing Songs (2006), and Penelope Gouk’s edited volume Musical Healing in Cultural Contexts (2000) are among the most frequently referenced sources in medical ethnomusicology. However, these works are ethnographically centered, and their theories are specific to the site in question, such as Koen’s (2003) music-prayer-dynamics theoretical framework for studying music-prayer healing in Badakhshan,Tajikistan.

The Development of Medical Ethnomusicology

In order to help facilitate the development of the field, Koen, Barz, and Brummel-Smith have put forth “a new theoretical framework … [whose] two key components … are the inclusion of culture and the ability to collaborate – both of which accommodate diversity, flexibility, innovation, and rigor in the development and application of specific research models” (2008, 10). Seemingly, this approach would allow for more interaction with other fields that investigate the music-healing connection. However, differences in methodology are a factor that may prevent fluid cross-disciplinary conversation and interaction. Both Western medicine and music therapy focus largely on quantitative data. Results are measured by percentages of increase or reduction in a specific behavior or activity. Moreover, music therapy research and practice is from a largely Western basis or perspective.[2] Medical ethnomusicology and medical anthropology operate largely from a qualitative standpoint. Bakan’s work with “the ethnomusicology of autism” (2009, 511), while examining “measurable objectives” (515), is admittedly “ethnographic, qualitative, and humanistic” (512). Yet, he notes that

denizens of the world of evidence-based research, much like ourselves, are asking new questions and seeking new ways to find answers. They are being compelled, by virtue of their situations, to think more qualitatively, more humanistically, and more culturally than has been their custom. And in my experience, at least, they are often quite receptive to and enthusiastic about what we have to offer along these lines. (p. 516)

Bakan then cites a letter sent to him by a physician at Harvard Medical School who admires his work and sees potential for collaborative work. It would seem that the medical and musical communities’ mutual admiration society creates a ripe situation for integrated research.

Music and Healing

A factor to keep in mind when designing projects involving music and healing is the difference between music’s universals, also described by Ian Cross (2001) as what “appears to be a universal human competence” (p. 28) and music as the universal language (a concept debunked by Nettl (2005) and others). While music is present in some form in all cultures and societies, the way in which it is perceived or utilized varies greatly. Further, individual musical preference and personal music history is unique and can vary greatly even within a culture (see DeNora, 2000). What may promote a state of trance in one culture may revile another. Roseman states, “healing songs may drive like techno and house dance tunes, on the one hand, or be wrapped in the blues or masquerade as tearjerkers, on the other” (p. 35). Clearly, while different genres may have the same or similar healing effects, there is not one catch-all style that will be the aural balm for all.

Ethnomusicology vs. Music Therapy

May-May Chiang (2008) provides an analysis of the overlaps in and differences between ethnomusicology and music therapy. However, while she cites medical ethnomusicology texts in her literature review, she noticeably, for unknown reasons, leaves out mention of medical professionals writing on music and healing. She cogently summarizes the discord between medical ethnomusicology and music therapy:

Ethnomusicologists have been extensively involved with traditional music, and music that is associated with healing is often part of the repertory. However, despite their association with healing music, ethnomusicologists have rarely contributed their knowledge and effort to healthcare-oriented research. Music therapists, on the other hand, have been focusing on the pragmatic use of music for the benefit of the patient, but rarely relate their healing practices to shamanic healing or other indigenous healing methods that are associated with music. (p. 1)

What this statement does not consider is the increasing work ethnomusicologists are doing in Western cultures, nor the potential uses of non-Western music in a music therapy capacity. Surely, each field would benefit from the knowledge the other can provide.

Medical Ethnomusicology Accessibility and Presence

Further, while the efforts of the Oxford Handbook’s collaborators and editors to produce a guide to the field are to be lauded, its clarity and theory may be confusing, or even off-putting, to an outsider. The Oxford chapters do not always make the music-healing connection clear to the lay reader, and as a result, the concept of medical ethnomusicology is at times less than explicit. Though music’s power to serve as an aid in healing – or as a healing agent in and of itself – is widely acknowledged, concision in explaining procedures and theories will help the field be accepted in a more interdisciplinary fashion.

Though an extensive amount of research on the concept of music and healing exists, locating this information is not a simple process. A direct search in 2011 on ExLibris for "medical ethnomusicology" produced surprisingly little, with Koen’s 2008 ethnography and The Oxford Handbook of Medical Ethnomusicology constituting half of the 21 results. 44 theses and dissertations that include the topic of medical ethnomusicology have been published on ProQuest at the time of the writing of this paper; none was written before 2003, clearly recognizing the nascence of this field in this iteration. The American Musicological Society’s Database of Dissertations in Musicology only lists one dissertation, published in 2014 by Rodrigo Caballero, as containing the term “medical ethnomusicology”; however, searching for dissertations with terms such as “medicine,” “healing,” and “music” produces far more results. The same holds true for tweaks on ProQuest searches.

Medical Ethnomusicology’s Connection(s) to Other Disciplines

Interaction amongst the involved fields, namely, medicine, medical anthropology, medical sociology, ethnomusicology, medical ethnomusicology, music therapy, and community music therapy, seems to be steadily growing. Koen, Barz, Lloyd, and Brummel-Smith (2008) and Roseman (2008) reference prominent names in the field of medical anthropology, such as Arthur Kleinman (1980; 1988), Thomas Csordas (1990; 1994a; 1994b), Byron Good (1994), Bruce Kapferer (1986), Milton Singer (1991), and Michael Taussig (1993); however, the work of Claudius Conrad (2010), Mark Tramo (2001), and Gottfried Schlaug et al. (1995), all of whom are medical professionals studying music, and musicians themselves, is not featured in the literature of medical ethnomusicology. Theresa Allison, who holds both a PhD in ethnomusicology and an MD, is the exception. However, Tramo’s (2001) opening paragraph could be just at home in a medical ethnomusicological text as it is in Science:

All of us are born with the capacity to apprehend emotion and meaning in music, regardless of whether we understand music theory or read musical notation. Without conscious effort, the human brain is able to translate spectral and temporal patterns of acoustic energy into music's basic perceptual elements: melody, harmony, and rhythm. ... Music, like language, is an acoustically based form of communication with a set of rules for combining a limited number of sounds in an infinite number of ways. Universal among human cultures, music binds us in a collective identity as members of nations, religions, and other groups. (p. 54)

As resources specifically addressing medical ethnomusicology are both limited and disparate, medical ethnomusicology would benefit from incorporating the work of such scholars in its canon. In conjunction with Volume 9 of SEM Student News (2014), which was devoted to medical and cognitive ethnomusicologies, Davin Rosenberg and I created an online clearinghouse entitled “Music, Medicine, Health, and Cognition: A Resource List.” The listing includes the following topics: medical ethnomusicology, music and (ethno)medicine, musical healing, music as therapy and multicultural music therapy, and medical anthropology. Resources for cognitive ethnomusicology/culture-centered music cognition; music perception, trance, and emotion; music and neuroscience; and music psychology are also presented.

A Newly Emerging Field

One cause for these discrepancies is that the field of medical ethnomusicology as a recognized topic is in its infancy. Music therapy as a conceptualized discipline has existed since the 1940s (see Edwards (2008) for a thorough literature review of the Western use of music in healthcare contexts) and numerous conferences and journals for the field exist. The Society for Medical Anthropology (SMA) is over forty years old, and while it is still considered a section of the American Anthropological Association, SMA has its own interest groups (Society for Medical Anthropology, 2009). Further, scholars can feature their work in the journal Medical Anthropology Quarterly. As no separate medical ethnomusicology society or journal exists as of yet, so presentations and publications on researchers’ findings must be done under the roof of larger, broader organizations. Publication of medical ethnomusicological articles is scant. While numerous articles on music and healing have been printed in Ethnomusicology (Chiang 2008)[3], and The World of Music has published an issue (1997) that is devoted exclusively to the subject of music and healing, under the title ‘Music and Healing in Transcultural Perspectives’” (ibid.), the subdiscipline still lacks a strong presence. Also, unlike music therapy and ethnomusicology, both of which have numerous journals, no specific medical ethnomusicology journals yet exist. Moreover, in the publications that do exist, “articles that show interests in shamanism, ritual healing, and trance are often focused on the procedures and contents of the ceremonies, the social roles and functions, and theoretical issues, rather than medical interests” (Chiang 2008, p. 6). The converse is also true: articles on music therapy are not featured in ethnomusicological publications (Chiang 2008, 7). A piece that integrates music therapy theory with the examination of the cultural underpinnings of the site in question would serve as a good crossover article. Clearly, the interest and research is there, but the conceptualizing of said work as medical ethnomusicology has not fully taken shape. However, the Special Interest Group (SIG) for Medical Ethnomusicology, also known as the Association for Medical Ethnomusicology (The Special Interest Group for Medical Ethnomusicology, 2011), formed in 2006, is a Society for Ethnomusicology (SEM)-based group which brings together SEM members who share an interest in the topic. Further, the journal Music and Medicine, published by the International Association for Music and Medicine (IAMM), hopes to help cross these chasms.

The 2013 SEM conference in Indianapolis, Indiana featured a medical ethnomusicology theme; the pre-conference symposium’s focus was “Music and Global Health: Toward Collaborative Paradigms” (Society for Ethnomusicology, 2013), and was presented in partnership with the Indiana University School of Medicine, the IU Center for Global Health, the IUPUI program in Medical Humanities and Health Studies, and the IUPUI Global Health Student Interest Group. The pre-conference’s Call for Proposals notes,

Increasingly, humanities scholars are noticing how deeply local populations integrate their own understandings of health into their creative expressions, offering commentary on both indigenous views of health and global health efforts in the process. Music scholars have recently taken a leading role in this conversation, producing a growing literature in ‘Medical Ethnomusicology,’ and helping to shape the field of global health and the arts more generally. At the heart of this endeavor is the continued challenge to integrate effectively the needs of medical researchers with the expertise of humanities scholars in order to address health inequalities at all levels. (Society for Ethnomusicology 2013)

The conference featured such sessions as “Music Therapy and Medical Ethnomusicology: An Exploration of Existing Disciplines, Models, and Collaborative Potentials,” a roundtable with Gregory Melchor-Barz and Jane Edwards, IAMM president, as two of the participants; and “Methods for Collaboration.” André de Quadros, a professor of music at Boston University, and a leader in music and public health research, was the keynote speaker at the preconference. The conference did generate great enthusiasm, and collaborations are sure to result from this meeting. Further, continued conferences, such as the 3rd International Conference of the International Association for Music and Medicine, held in Toronto in June 2014, have helped to boost the use of the term “medical ethnomusicology,” recognition of this field, and crossover collaborations between medical ethnomusicology and music therapy.

Research Centers Dedicated to Music and Health, However Broadly Defined

A number of research centers devoted to music and health exist.[4] Toronto is one of the cities at the forefront of this work. The newly-created University of Toronto Music and Health Research Collaboratory (MaHRC) touts itself as an institution that will help cross these disciplinary chasms, with its four-pronged approach to the topic: “(1) Therapy and Medicine, (2) Body, Brain, Mind, (3) Society and Culture, and (4) Teaching, Learning and Performing” (Music and Health Research Collaboratory [MaHRC]). While the collaboratory’s list of affiliated organizations, albeit in its nascent stages, includes music therapy, medical, music cognition institutes and centers, and the developing international advisory council features such prominent members as Schlaug and Edwards,[5] neither an ethnomusicology department, nor an ethnomusicologist, is involved. However, outreach to the medical ethnomusicology community has occurred, and will hopefully strengthen this bond over time. The Institute of Music in Human and Social Development (IMHSD), led by former Music and Neuroimaging Laboratory lab member Katie Overy, has one ethnomusicologist on its Scientific Committee (The Institute of Music in Human in Social Development, 2011).[6] Given the institutes’ focus on music and culture, inclusion of ethnomusicologists or medical ethnomusicologists is essential for truly achieving the centers’ aims. A complete discussion of all of the music and health centers that have and do exist, while appropriate for future study, is outside the scope of this paper, as is a complete discussion of degree-granting institutions offering programs in the overlapping disciplines. However, these examples showcase the potential for further collaboration and participation by the field of ethnomusicology as a whole, and medical ethnomusicology in particular.

The Medical Humanities in Academia

Further, degree-granting institutions offer programs in medical anthropology[7], medical humanities, medical sociology, and music therapy; doctoral programs are offered in music therapy at several universities.[8] One example is Boston University, which offers an M.A. in Medical Anthropology and Cross-Cultural Practice in the Graduate Medical Sciences division of the School of Medicine. Florida State University (FSU) advertises its robust program in medical ethnomusicology, with Bakan and Koen both based there. Koen is also now based at Xiamen University, in Xiamen, China, where he is the “Distinguished Professor Minjiang Scholar of Medical Humanities, Medical Anthropology & Medical Ethnomusicology.” However, it must be noted that the FSU course catalog does not feature a single course focused specifically on medical ethnomusicology (Florida State University, 2011). Appalachian State University currently offers a first-year seminar titled “Music, Spirit, Science, and Healing”; it says that the “course will use the lens of medical ethnomusicology and folklore to examine cultural beliefs about and practices of music, spirit, and healing as they circulate and are enacted in many societies” (Appalachian State University 2011). Roseman offers a class at Queen’s University Belfast entitled “Music, Medicine, and Culture”; it notes that it “represents a growing fusion between ethnomusicology, medical anthropology, and psychological anthropology, recently termed ‘medical ethnomusicology’” (Queen’s University Belfast, 2011). Surprisingly, this course is offered at the School of History and Anthropology, and not as part of a music department, further evidence that coursework in medical ethnomusicology may be housed in numerous departments. As far as other related interdisciplinary work, Harvard University features a program in auditory neuroscience as part of its Institute for Music and Brain Science (The Institute for Music and Brain Science 2011a), of which Tramo is director (The Institute for Music and Brain Science, 2011b).[9] Udo Will and Margarita Mazo at Ohio State University are working on cognitive ethnomusicology (OSU Ethnomusicology, 2011a; 2011b). IMHSD offers an MSc in Music in the Community, “a relatively young discipline emerging at the meeting point of performing arts research, community development, creative arts therapies, and conflict resolution” (Reid School of Music – ECA, 2012). Notably, neither ethnomusicology nor medical ethnomusicology are explicitly mentioned, though coursework focused on intercultural applications of music for healthcare purposes are listed.[10] Lastly, scholars such as de Quadros and Lee Daniels at Boston University are blazing a trail in the study of music and public health (Boston University College of Fine Arts, 2011), and community music, respectively.

Next Steps: Associations, Affiliations, Definitions, and Training

What remains to be established is a number of programs, either at one school or as part of a consortium, where students can study the intersections of the medical humanities, including, medical ethnomusicology, and music therapy. Several universities offer coursework or degree programs in medical humanities, including Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), which hosted the 2013 SEM preconference. Harvard Medical School has developed a Center for the Arts and Humanities. Its board members and affiliated faculty feature several of the marquee names in music and medicine in Boston, including psychologist Psyche Loui, a member of the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Music and Neuroimaging Lab, and Lisa M. Wong, physician and author of Scales to Scalpels: Doctors Who Practice the Healing Art of Music and Medicine (2012), as well as Schlaug. Both Loui and Wong are members of the Longwood Symphony Orchestra, an orchestra comprised entirely of musicians affiliated with the healthcare community in the Boston area. Medical ethnomusicology would fit well into this region, particularly given the increased inclusion of the arts as part of medical training.

In addition, in order to fully be respected and hold competence within the medical field, I bring into the debate the idea that certification or certain core work, akin to that undergone by public health practitioners, licensed practical nurses, music therapists, and social workers, would provide greater acceptance of the field of medical ethnomusicology. We have seen inklings of such practices in Koen’s (2008) use of an electrocardiogram machine to achieve quantitative data in his research. Such core studies could then include training in statistics, as seen in sociology, to make use of empirical data within fieldwork.

Future of the Field

Koen, Barz, Lloyd, and Brummel-Smith declare that “a new milieu of consciousness is emerging among researchers and practitioners across disciplines in music, the health sciences, integrative, complementary, and alternative medicine (ICAM), the physical and social sciences, medical humanities, and the healing arts” (2008, p. 3). Charles Aluede and Eunice Ibekwe (2011) state that “interest in music healing has developed and advanced with great rapidity” (p. 125). As of now, most of the work in medical ethnomusicology is done by those culturally oriented in Western medicine. Research in medical ethnomusicology would be well-served to include more theory from medical anthropology and medical sociology to help solidify its grounding as an academic field. More research by non-Western medical ethnomusicologists and home studies would also be remarkably beneficial. Ethnographic work on vibrational medicine, which uses not music, but rather, sound, to affect healing, will help provide a robust body of literature on the sonic connection to healing. In addition, music’s ability to harm rather than heal should be considered within medical ethnomusicology. Specifically, the use of music as a form of torture would prove a rich topic for examination (see Cusick, 2006; Bergh & Sloboda, 2010; Cusick & Joseph, 2011; Daly, 2011 for a discussion of the topic of music torture from ethnomusicological and music therapy perspectives; see also Kent, 2005 for a discussion of unpeaceful music).

The 2013 SEM preconference's aforementioned focus on medical ethnomusicology was one excellent opportunity to do examine the connections between medical ethnomusicology and music therapy. The theories of each field can and should bolster the work of the other. Monographs may overlap in location (and perhaps even methodology) and provide tips for more pointed, culturally specific treatment. Joseph Moreno’s (1995) article on the coined term of "ethnomusic therapy" should be revisited and incorporated into the ethnomedical approach to health, wellness, illness, and healing (Chiang, 2008, p. 56). As Koen states,

the whole idea is to really redefine "medical" just as medical anthropology did, because "medical," its root is dealing with the idea of creating health and healing, [for the] benefit of wholeness and wellness, so that the idea is not the property or only the domain of biomedicine, or of health sciences, nor of indigenous traditions, but is something that is shared across, not only different disciplines, but also different cultures and different approaches. So, part of the work these days is not only to do research and apply the knowledge from that research to benefit humanity, to benefit individuals and groups … but also to educate the public and researchers and scholars about what that "medical" can mean (Koen 2008, in Chiang 2008, p. 61).

Tramo (2001) also speaks to this need for cooperation, remarking,

ultimately, if we wish to explore the neurobiological foundations of music, we must design experiments that cross the traditional divide between science and the arts. Understanding music as a universal form of human expression will provide insights into the neurobiology of perception, performance, emotion, learning, development, and plasticity—with a few hints about aesthetics, talent, and creativity thrown in. (p. 56)

Clearly, ethnomusicology and medicine can mutually benefit from each other in theory and practice.


The field of medical ethnomusicology is viable, valid, and receiving increasing recognition. It serves as reflection of the growing interdisciplinary focus gaining traction in academia and medicine alike. However, in its titular formulation, it is still in the developing stage. Timothy Rice’s comments on the discipline of ethnomusicology as a whole apply to medical ethnomusicology as well:

To flourish as a discipline, to build our discipline, and I dare say to protect it, we need some generalizing theoretical moisture to, depending on the metaphor you prefer, green our intellectual garden or pull together these ethnographic grains of sand into an adobe brick of shared and contested ideas. From these theoretical bricks we can build our disciplinary house. We can’t build it from grains of ethnographic sand. (2010, p. 321)

Moreover, Dirksen (2012) declares that, with regards to the practice of ethnomusicology, “we need to talk and write a lot more about our applied and practical activities, in ways accessible to lay readership.” Such calls are particularly ripe given the sea change in the job market for humanities scholars and the rise of alternative academic, or “alt-ac,” jobs. The rise in postings for medical sociologists and medical anthropologists at universities and healthcare centers alike will hopefully make the job market more amenable to hiring medical ethnomusicologists as well.

When a medical professional, e.g., a physician or surgeon, engages with music in their practice in any way, it is lauded, be it playing music of a patient’s choosing during an MRI or selecting certain recordings for use during surgery. Though medical ethnomusicology is growing in recognition and practice, there remains a sense that music therapists are often still viewed as the true professionals in the practice and study of music and healing. With continued pushes for interdisciplinary work and further clarity of medical ethnomusicology’s definition, theories, aims, and goals, the subject will gain further stronghold within the larger discipline of ethnomusicology, bolster its connections with other relevant areas of study, and grow in recognition and acceptance. Aluede and Ibekwe (2011) state that “with the dawn of each day, explorations are made for possible areas where the art of music healing has had impetus from” (p. 125). Should the field of medical ethnomusicology continue to develop at the same speed as it has for the past twenty years, it will soon be well-grounded and have an even stronger literature and presence both in its home discipline of ethnomusicology and the broader humanities.


[1] Densmore’s (1918) work with the Teton Sioux is “perhaps the earliest ethnomusicological research where the subject of music and healing was considered to any significant degree” (Koen, 2003, 35).

[2] Community music therapy, “a context-based and music-centred model that highlights the social and cultural factors influencing Music Therapy practice, theory, and research” (Ansdell, 2002; Stige et al., 2010), is gaining traction. Culture-centered music therapy (Stige 2002) notes the increasing weight given to the culture of the client and the practitioner in treatment and examines best practices for their inclusion.

[3] “While special issues on specific subjects such as ‘Latin American’ [music] and ‘Music and Politics’ are published in the journal Ethnomusicology, none of these issues has been devoted to the subject of music and healing. Nonetheless, The World of Music has published an issue (1997) that is devoted exclusively to the subject of music and healing, under the title ‘Music and Healing in Transcultural Perspectives’”. (Chiang, 2008, 7)

[4] A complete discussion of all of the music and health centers, while appropriate for future study, is outside the scope of this paper.

[5] Edwards has published and researched extensively on music therapy and is the president of the International Association for Music and Medicine (Irish World Academy of Music and Dance, 2013).

[6] DeNora is also on the Scientific Committee.

[7] One example is Boston University, which offers an M.A. in Medical Anthropology and Cross-Cultural Practice in the Graduate Medical Sciences division of the School of Medicine.

[8] However, degree availability alone does not determine a discipline’s validity or efficacy.

[9] Tramo remains director even though he is now based at University of California-Los Angeles.

[10] A SIG for Music and Violence has recently formed. I am a member of both the Music and Violence and Medical Ethnomusicology SIGs.


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