|Introduction| |Historical Perspective| |Theoretical Foundations| |Working Areas| |Associations| |Recognition| |Training Programs| |Research| |Literature| |Links and Contacts| |Future Trends| |References|
Spain is located at the Iberian Peninsula, in the southwest of Europe with a strategic location along approaches to Strait of Gibraltar. Additionally the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea (Mallorca, Menorca and Ibiza), Canary Islands in Atlantic Ocean close to the Moroccan coast (Gran Canaria, Tenerife, La Gomera, La Palma, Lanzarote, Fuerteventura and El Hierro) and Ceuta and Melilla, located in northern Africa, are Spanish territory. Landscapes are extremely varied, with more than 4000 km of coastlines. Its climate has been described by the World Health Organisation as the healthiest in the world with more than 3000 hours of sun a year. Spain is so extraordinarily rich in art and architecture today because of the many distinct cultures that populated the country and influenced its cultural development.
For many people, Spanish music is synonymous of flamenco. However, Spain's autonomous regions have many of their own distinctive folk traditions, and regional styles of folk music within its 19 Autonomous Communities. Some regional styles of folk music are strongly connected to group dances and community celebrations (El Rocio, Feria de Abril, Semana Santa; Los Tambores de Calanda, Sardanas, Romerias Gallegas, etc.). Nowadays pop, rock, jazz and hip hop are also popular. There is also a movement of folk-based singer-songwriters with politically active lyrics. The richness of Spanish music and dances are incorporated into music therapy approaches, that allows the music therapist to use a wide range of music, rhythms and moods.
Historical perspective about the therapeutic use of music in Spain has been well documented in literature (León Sanz, 1991a, 1991b; Poch, 1971; 1993; 1999) and the first references about the therapeutic uses of music dates from the 18th Century. At the beginning of the 20th Century in Madrid, Dr. Candela Ardid organised music-related therapeutic experiences at the Sanatorio de la Encarnación; in 1920 he published his experiences in the book La Música como medio curativo de las enfermedades nerviosas [Music as a Therapeutic Medium for Nervous Diseases]. These first music-related therapeutic activities, -with psychiatric patients or in healing tarantism-, made important contributions to the historical and theoretical background of Music Therapy in Spain.
However, Music Therapy as a Profession was introduced by Serafina Poch (PhD-RMT) in the sixties. She was the first author of a Master`s Dissertation (1964) and a PhD Thesis in Music Therapy (1973) in Spain. As a music therapy pioneer she did several researches in Centers of Education for Children with Special Needs. From 1970-1975 she conducted a music therapy research project at the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) within the Instituto Español de Musicología (Spanish Institute of Musicology).
During the seventies a group of educators, musicians, psychologists and physicians interested in the field of Music Therapy (Pilar Lago, Natividad García, Paloma Camacho, Daniel Terán, Francisco Blasco) learned about the discipline and started to empirically apply the principles of the therapeutic use of music in their daily work with patients and students with special needs education. In 1975, the first Introductory Course to Music Therapy was taught by Rolando Benenzon. At the same time, the Spanish section of the International Society for Music Education (ISME-Spain) established a group of study devoted to Music Therapy and promoted numerous courses. In 1977 was founded the Spanish Association of Music Therapy [Asociación Española de Musicoterapia] by Serafina Poch and collegues. The association support the First National Symposium of Music Therapy (Madrid, March, 28-April, 2, 1977) and the Second National Symposium of Music Therapy (1979).
In the eighties Serafina Poch established in Barcelona the Catalonia Association of Music Therapy (Asociación Catalana de Musicoterapia) (1983). At same year, in Vitoria-Gasteiz (Basque Country), Aitor Loroño and Patxi del Campo founded the Center for Music Therapy Research (Centro de Investigación en Musicoterapia). Both associations offered an important number of activities related to Music Therapy. In 1986 Patxi del Campo established the Escuela de Musicoterapia y Técnicas Grupales (School of Music Therapy and Group Techniques, today known as Asociación Música, Arte y Proceso) in Vitoria-Gasteiz, and Aitor Loroño founded in Bilbao the Centro de Investigación Musicoterapeútica (Music Therapy Research Center), in 1987. Both Music Therapy Centers started the first private training programmes in Music Therapy in Spain, establishing permanent relationship with national and international private and public organisation involved in music therapy.
During the 1990s, particularly after the VII World Congress of Music Therapy held in Vitoria (1993), there was an increasing interest in Music Therapy both as discipline and as profession. Professionals in related fields trained in music therapy started music therapy activities and/or music-related therapeutic activities, most of them, in private clinical practice in the field of special education and psychiatry. The interest in music therapy training growth and Music Therapy Seminars and Introductory Workshops have been held in Universities (Universidad de Cádiz, Universidad de Barcelona, UNED, Universidad de Valencia, Universidad Jaume I, Universidad Blanquerna), Private Institutes (Centro de Investigación Musicoterapéutica, Música Arte y Proceso) and organised by Music Therapy Associations. Simultaneously, different music therapy training programs were offered by Universities and Private Institutes (see Training Programmes).
In the latest nineties' the interest of Spanish professionals in Music Therapy increased significantly among those who work in the field of special education, elderly people, patients with Alzheimer's disease, neurological rehabilitation and psychiatry. Different music therapy programmes started at Private and Public Institutions (see Theoretical Foundations/Research). As consequence of the interest in the field of music therapy and the need to establish a music therapy professional community, many Music Therapy Associations were founded in Spain in the latest nineties and in the beginning of the XXI Century (see Links and Contacts).
Over the past three decades most initiatives related to Music Therapy have been developed in an informal and non-official manner, in public or private institutions. Although, Music Therapy in Spain is still a professional activity in the preliminary stages of establishing itself as a recognised profession (see Recognition). Results of a research conducted by the author show that in Spain the origin of the different approaches and theoretical orientations to music therapy clinical practice is a consequence of multiple elements:
In Spain theoretical orientation of Music Therapy clinical practice is eclectic, based on active methods and in the principles of Benenzon Music Therapy. The main media used are percussion instruments, voice, and body. More frequently techniques used are listening to music, instrumental improvisation and body movement with music. Assessment of clients present an informal approach and no standardised assessment tools are used. Areas of assessment and evaluation of clients include musical and non-musical behaviours. Descriptive reports are used to present assessment results (Sabbatella, 2003).
Music Therapy in Spain is still a professional activity in the preliminary stages of establishing itself as a discipline and an officially recognised profession (see Recognition).
Right now there is a growing demand of music therapist for the fields of Special Education, Geriatric Music Therapy, Neurological rehabilitation, Psychiatric and Medical Music Therapy. Currently, most Spanish music therapists are working privately, but some of them lead projects in Public Institutions specially related to research (see Research). Following, there is a list of public and private institutions that offer activities related with music therapy at different levels of clinical practice.
The Spanish Association of Music Therapy [Asociación Española de Musicoterapia- AEMT] was established in 1977 by Serafina Poch and colleagues, and was the first one in Spain. During the eighties the AEMT have played a significant role in stimulating interest in music therapy and served as a connection between professionals (see Historical Perspective). During the eighties and beginning of the nineties several Music Therapy Associations were founded in different regions of Spain (see Links and Contacts).
In 1992, the need of coordinate forces let a professional group to create the Coordinadora Nacional de Musicoterapia (National Music Therapy Committee). Its existence was limited and it turn off quickly. From that moment the initiatives related with Music Therapy were developed with poor contact between the professionals and the associations.
In September 1998 the need for merge efforts and to establish a set of criteria and unified basement for the development of Music Therapy in Spain promote a meeting in Madrid of a group of professionals. In this meeting was considered to reactivate the "Coordinadora Nacional de Musicoterapia" (National Music Therapy Committee) and/or to create a stable organisation targeting to coordinate the activities developed around Music Therapy Associations in Spain. Assistants to the meeting agreed to organise a new meeting in Madrid on February 2nd, 2000, in order to create the "Federación Española de Musicoterapia" (Spanish Music Therapy Federation). On September 9th 2000 were approved the articles of the Federation. A new meeting was arranged for February 9th 2001 to sign the foundational documents (Terán, 2000). Finally the Federation was not constituted (lack of quorum and unified criteria)
In opinion of the author, the failed attempt to construct a Spanish Music Therapy Federation and the absence of a political direction for the national development of Music Therapy promoted the proliferation of Music Therapy Associations in different regions of Spain with the objective to represent themselves in the field of Music Therapy. According to this, the characteristic of Music Therapy in Spain during the nineties, and until the present moment, was the lack of communication and contact among professionals (see Links and Contacts).
In November 1997, the Professional Association of Music Therapists [Asociación de Profesionales de la Musicoterapia-APM] was founded to promote the government recognition of Music Therapy in Spain, to establish professional standards for music therapist and to protect the correct professional practice of Music Therapy.
Nowadays Music Therapy in Spain is not recognised as a profession by the government, neither and official degree (see Training Programs). This circumstance:
The academic background of the music therapists that are working in Spain is diverse:
Music Therapy is not very well known and recognized as profession in Spain. In order to change this situation a serious debate is needed to define the role and professional status of Music Therapy in the Spanish society, the minimum standards for training and professional registration. These are the first steps to propose to the government a document agreed by consensus to regulate the studies in music therapy and its professional recognition (see Associations / Training Programs)
In Spain Music Therapy Training Programmes, - at Master or Post-Graduate Level-, are offered both by Private Institutions (since 1986) and Universities (since 1992). The training offer includes:
From and historical perspective, the first Postgraduate Training Course in Music Therapy were offered by private institutions (Centro de Investigación Musicoterapéutica de Bilbao y en la Escuela de Musicoterapia y Técnicas Grupales de Vitoria-Gasteiz) during the eighties. In 1992, the first University Music Therapy Program was offered at the University of Barcelona and led by Serafina Poch.
During the nineties different Music Therapy Programs were organised both in private and public universities with different level (postgraduate /master) (figure 1).
Figure 1: Music Therapy Training Courses in Spain
|MUSIC THERAPY TRAINING COURSES IN SPAIN|
|Public Universities||Private Universities||Private Institutes|
|Universidad Autónoma de Madrid||Universidad Católica de San Antonio||Centro de Investigación Musicoterapeútica|
|Universidad de Barcelona||Universidad Pontificia de Salamanca||Instituto Música, Arte y Proceso|
|Universidad de Cádiz||Universitat Ramon Llull||Musitando|
|Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia||Fundación Mayeusis|
Entry Requirements are:
The structure, duration, theoretical orientation, academic level and government recognition of these training courses are considerable different between them. The theoretical orientation of the training programs do not concentrate on any single model or method, are general programmes that gives a wide picture of music therapy, its different schools, models and methods. Some training courses guest foreign teachers. The orientation of the studies are focus on the professional practice of Music Therapy. There are not Doctoral Programmes in Music Therapy in Spain.
In author's opinion, the construction of an European Higher Education Area (EHEA) by 2010 could be a way to obtain official recognition of Music Therapy studies in Spain. This situation involves that the Universities, the Music Therapy Associations and the Private Institutes establish unified criteria and standards for training that leads to an official Master in Music Therapy according the rules of EHEA.
These courses, seminars and workshops are offered by Public or Private Institutes to promote and spread the discipline within professionals of other fields. During the nineties an increase of this type of courses was observed. Some of this courses are offered every year (Seminario de Verano Instituto Musica, Arte y Proceso; Escuela de Verano del Centro de Investigación Musicoterapéutica, Seminario Musica y Medicina de la UCA, Cursos de Verano de la UNED).
Within the official studies recognized by the Spanish Government, Music Therapy is offered as a subject in different Universities Degrees: Special Education Teacher, Music Education Teacher, Hearing and Language Disabilities Teacher, Nursing, Physiotherapy, Speech Therapy, Occupational Therapy, Medicine or Psychology (Universidad de Cádiz, Autónoma de Madrid, Sevilla, Huelva, UNED, Jaume I, Valladolid, Valencia).
The positive point is that Music Therapy is included as a subject in different degrees and allows its promotion within the students of related professions to Music Therapy.
Even though some investigations in Music Therapy with financial support of public or private organizations, Music Therapy in Spain is recognized as a professional activity where research and theorization are secondary (see Literature).
Nowadays many Institutes required Music Therapy Programs related to investigation projects, in order to justify the professional application of the discipline. Although there are not enough systematic studies conducted by music therapist and music therapists trained in research methods as Spanish Universities don't offer Doctoral Programmes in Music therapy (see Training Programs). Only one research group related to music therapy recognized by the government is working in Spain (Research Group: Music, Education and Therapy HUM-794, Junta de Andalucía).
Literature is a referent to observe the philosophical, theoretical and methodological orientation covered by the literature and the way these ideas influence the clinical practice of Music Therapy. Nowadays there are many books of Music Therapy available in Spain:
Also there are published chapters of books about Music Therapy in books of:
Literature analysis shows that:
Along with these publications different articles have been published in Journals of Music Therapy, Music Education, Psychology or Medicine about the therapeutic use of music and its application in the fields of education, rehabilitation or psychiatry.
List of Journals and Newspapers of Music Therapy published in Spain:
Castilla y León (Castile and Leon)
Islas Canarias (Canary Islands)
País Vasco (Basque Country)
At the beginning of this century there is still a great deal of work to do in Spain in order to obtain a professional development and academic recognition of Music Therapy. To obtain this purpose is necessary to plan an united action between Music Therapy Associations, Universities and Private Institutes in order to promote professional interchange and to create unified criteria that allow:
Reaching this objectives will allow Spanish Music Therapy to develop its own professional identity and a concept of the therapeutic use of music according Spanish cultural background increasing the quality in the professional practice in different working areas.
Spain lives actually a good moment for professional and academic consolidation of Music Therapy. The future is in the Spanish Music Therapist s hands.
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